Global Daily News

  • 1.4 million US jobs to be disrupted by technology by 2026; reskilling vital

    A new report released by the World Economic Forum found 1.4 million US jobs will be disrupted by technology and other factors between now and 2026, and 57% of those jobs belong to women. However, 95% of workers most at risk would find good-quality, higher wage work if they had adequate reskilling.The report came out Monday before the start today of the World Economic Forum’s 48th annual meeting in Davos-Klosters, Switzerland, with more than 3,000 global leaders. Separately, ManpowerGroup (NYSE: MAN) Chairman and CEO Jonas Prising was also scheduled to speak at the event today on a panel with, an entrepreneur as well as founder and frontman of hip hop group The Black Eyed Peas.The report on job disruption and reskilling, titled, “Towards a Reskilling Revolution: A Future of Jobs for All,” analyzed more than 1,000 job types and was produced in collaboration with The Boston Consulting Group.It noted only 2% of workers would have an optimal opportunity to transition to new jobs while 16% would have none at all. However, at-risk workers who retrain for an average of two years could receive an average annual salary increase of $15,000, and businesses would be able to find talent for jobs that may otherwise remain unfilled.“The only limiting factor in a world of opportunities for people is the willingness of leaders to make investments in re-skilling that will bridge workers onto new jobs,” said Klaus Schwab, founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum. “This report shows that this investment has very high returns for businesses as well as economies — and ensures that workers find a purpose in their lives.”People who will do best in transitions, according to the report, are those with transferrable skills such as collaboration and critical thinking.Separately at the annual meeting today, Prising and were scheduled to speak on a panel titled, “From C-Suite to Digital Suite, How to lead Through Digital Transformation.” Others on the panel were to include Dow Chairman and CEO Andrew Liveris, Cognizant CEO Francisco D’Souza, KPMG Head of People Susan Ferrier, IBM Watson Chief David Kenney and WPP CEO Sir Martin Sorrell. Financial Times US Managing Editor Gillian Tett was slated to moderate.Almost nine out of 10 HR leaders do not believe they have the leadership talent to drive success in the digital era, according to ManpowerGroup data. Leaders need to lead differently to stay relevant.“What got us here won’t get us there. Current and future leaders in the digital age must be open to change and ready to take calculated risks,” Prising said in a statement released before the panel. “The good news is leading through digital transformation does not mean a complete replacement of the makeup of strong leadership. Instead the 80/20 rule applies.”Prising continued: “Foundational leadership skills like endurance and adaptability continue to be critical. Yet in the digital age, effective leaders must also nurture the additional 20% — unleashing talent, daring to lead, and at times failing, fast; all to accelerate performance. We are pleased to be joined by such diverse and expert speakers to discuss how to keep businesses running smoothly with one hand, while preparing for a different and uncertain future with the other.”The World Economic Forum’s annual meeting runs through Friday. […]

  • ShiftPixy’s revenue rises 14.6% in fiscal Q1, but swings to $3.3 million loss

    ShiftPixy Inc. (NASD: PIXY), a provider of PEO services and developer of an online staffing app that it plans to release this year, reported revenue rose 14.6% in its fiscal first quarter ended Nov. 30 compared to the year-ago quarter. The Irvine, Calif.-based firm targets the restaurant and hospitality industry in Southern California. However, the company reported a net loss of $3.3 million compared to net income of $378,099 in the first quarter of its last fiscal year.In a filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission, SiftPixy noted increased costs came from additional worksite employees. The company also said it added two clients in the janitorial business, serving 200 worksite employees, for which the cost of workers’ compensation is triple the average cost of coverage for employees in other industries in which ShiftPixy operates. The company also noted an increase in operating expenses attributable to the development costs for its new technology platform to $1.9 million in the first quarter from zero in the year-ago quarter.   Q1 2018 Q1 2017 % change Net revenue $6,511,919 $5,681,676 14.6% Gross profit $1,245,516 $1,951,123 -36.2% Gross margin  19.1% 34.3%   Net (loss)/income  ($3,341,217) $378,099 nm The company has accumulated losses since its inception of approximately $12.7 million, according to the SEC filing.ShiftPixy raised $12 million last year in an IPO in June. Later, CFO Stephen DeSantis stepped down effective Oct. 20. Share price and market capShares in ShiftPixy fell 5.87% to $3.85 as of 12:29 p.m. Eastern time. The company had a market cap of $110.73 million. […]

  • Tradesmen International buys staffing firm Construction Labor Contractors

    Tradesmen International acquired Construction Labor Contractors LLC from private equity firm Silver Oak Services. Tradesmen International is a portfolio company of private equity funds managed by Blackstone Capital Partners.The transaction closed Dec. 19; terms were not announced.Construction Labor Contractors provides temporary staffing of skilled tradesmen for the commercial construction market. It has about 130 internal employees and issued 8,500 W-2s in 2017.The company launched in 1997 and is based in Richfield, Ohio, a Cleveland suburb. It operates 19 locations and serves clients nationwide.Construction Labor Contractors will eventually rebrand as Tradesmen International and CEO Brad Chesin will leave the firm after a transition period. The rest of the executive team will remain with the company.Silver Oak first invested in Construction Labor Contractors in June 2014. “We are extremely proud of our partnership with the CLC management team,” said Greg Barr, managing partner at Silver Oak. “They have significantly expanded the business over the last three-and-a-half years, and we believe the combination of CLC and Tradesmen will allow the consolidated entity to better serve client needs throughout the country.” During Silver Oak's ownership, the company enhanced the depth of its management team, invested in a centralized national accounts sales team and national recruiting team, and upgraded the IT infrastructure. It also expanded its geographic footprint via new office openings and three acquisitions, including Skilled Labor Solutions Inc. in 2016 and Trade Solutions Inc. in August 2017. […]

  • ASA staffing index reaches second-highest value for the same week since launch

    The American Staffing Association’s staffing index rose to a reading of 94 in the week of Jan. 8 to Jan. 14, reaching the second-highest value for the same week since the inception of the ASA Staffing Index in 2006. Temporary and contract staffing employment was 5.0% higher than the prior week — which included the New Year’s Day holiday — despite survey respondents citing Martin Luther King’s Birthday weekend as a condition that hindered growth for the week.Staffing employment edged up 0.8% compared to the same week last year.The index’s four-week moving average softened to 90 from 91, following the typical seasonal pattern given that January is the industry’s trough month. Year over year, the four-week average edged down 0.6%. […]

  • Hawaii posts lowest jobless rate in December

    Hawaii posted the lowest unemployment rate among all states in December at 2.0%, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics reported. North Dakota and New Hampshire followed, both at 2.6%.Alaska recorded the highest jobless rate among all states at 7.3% in December.The BLS reported unemployment rates fell in December in six states, as well as the District of Columbia. Rates rose only in Colorado, which was up by 0.2 percentage point. California, Hawaii and Mississippi hit their lowest rates since 1976, when the series began at 4.3%, 2.0%, and 4.6%, respectively. […]

  • Netherlands – ABU reports staffing growth in 2017

    The total amount of hours worked by temporary workers in the Netherlands grew by 6% in 2017 compared to 2016, according to annual figures from the Dutch Federation of Private Employment Agencies (ABU).ABU divides the year into four-week periods, with the 13th period (week 49-52) recently completed which provides full data for the year 2017.In the 13th period, the number of hours worked by temporary workers increased by 10% and the turnover increased by 12% compared to the same period last year. Because this period was less than one workable day less than the same period last year, a correction has been applied. For the full year 2017 there was also one workable day less than in 2016 so a correction has also been applied.For the 13th period, temporary workers in the administrative sector saw an increase of 1% in hours and an increase of 2% in turnover compared to the same period last year. In the industrial sector there was an increase of 15% in hours and an increase of 20% in turnover compared to the same period last year. Within the technical sector, the number of hours increased by 13% and the turnover increased by 15% compared to the same period last year.ABU’s full year figures showed that temporary workers in the administrative sector saw a decrease of 2% in hours and a decrease of 2% in turnover in 2017 compared to 2016. Meanwhile, in the industrial sector, temp workers saw an increase of 11% in hours and an increase of 14% in turnover compared to 2016. In the technical sector the number of hours increased by 8% and the turnover increased by 8% compared to 2016. […]

  • France – Number of temporary workers up 12%

    At the end of November 2017, the number of temporary workers grew by 12.1% compared to the previous year, according to seasonally adjusted value figures from Pôle Emploi.At the end of November 2017, the number of temporary workers amounted to 800,000.In November, the number of temporary workers increased in the industrial sector by 10.5% and in construction by 16.6%. The tertiary sector saw an increase of 11.7% over the year.Year-on-year, temporary employment increased in all regions with the highest increase coming from the Bourgogne-Franche region (21.0%). […]

  • World – Switzerland tops Global Talent Competitiveness Index, released by Adecco

    Switzerland ranked first internationally in attracting, developing and retaining talent, according to the 2018 Global Talent Competitiveness Index. The UK ranked eighth.The index features 119 countries and 90 cities. The index is published by INSEAD, the Business School for the World, in partnership with the Adecco Group and Tata Communications.For countries, the index assesses policies and practices that enable countries to attract, develop and retain both “technical/vocational skills” and the “global knowledge skills” associated with innovation, entrepreneurship and leadership.This year’s edition found that the top ten countries have several key characteristics in common and share one major feature: they all have a well-developed educational system providing the social and collaboration skills needed for employability in today’s labor market. Other characteristics in common between the top-ranking countries include a flexible regulatory and business landscape; employment policies which combine flexibility and social protection; and external and internal openness.European countries continue to dominate the rankings, taking eight of the top 10 spots: Switzerland Singapore United States Norway Sweden Finland Denmark United Kingdom Netherlands Luxembourg In the cities portion of the index, eight out of the top 10 ranking cities are located in Europe, and two in the US. As in the case of countries, over time, higher GDP levels naturally lead to higher technology penetration, creating ecosystems with better quality education, business, healthcare and infrastructure. Zurich, Switzerland Stockholm, Sweden Oslo, Norway Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Washington DC, USA Dublin, Ireland San Francisco, USA Paris, France Brussels, Belgium In addition to the talent competitiveness ranking, this year’s report investigated the theme of “Diversity for Competitiveness.” The report found that diversity is not an end in itself, but must always be accompanied by a culture of inclusion in order to flourish and have real impact.“Focusing on diversity and inclusion is crucial to overcome the fractures and inequalities of our age,” said Adecco Group CEO Alain Dehaze. “This means nurturing a culture of inclusion, starting at home and school, fighting bias and developing social and collaborative skills, which are key to unleash the power of work and will make the future work for everyone.&rdquo […]

  • Netherlands – Most freelancers expect higher turnover and profits in 2018

    Business confidence is on the rise for self-employed workers in the Netherlands as the majority (67%) of freelancers expect higher turnover and 65% expect more profit, according to research from the ZZP Barometer.The research, which polled nearly 1,100 respondents, also showed that 13% of zzp’ers (the Dutch word for freelancer) say they have no confidence in the economy. For 18% of respondents, confidence remains the same and for 69% confidence is on the rise.Meanwhile, the data from ZZP Barometer also showed that most Dutch freelancers are not planning to lower their rate as 3% will apply lower rate for their work in 2018 compared to last year, while 36% will keep the same rate and 60% will raise the rate.&nbs […]

  • World – Global unemployment stabilising

    Global unemployment in 2018 is projected to remain at a similar level to last year according to a new report by the International Labour Organization (ILO).  The World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2018 showed that the global unemployment rate has been stabilising after a rise in 2016. It is expected to have reached 5.6% in 2017, with the total number of unemployed exceeding 192 million persons.  As the long-term global economic outlook remains modest despite stronger than expected growth in 2017, the report attributes the positive trend between 2017 and 2018 mainly to the strong performance of labour markets in developed countries, where the unemployment rate is projected to fall by an additional 0.2% in 2018 to reach 5.5%, a rate below pre-crisis levels. In contrast, employment growth is expected to fall short of labour force growth in emerging and developing countries, but has nevertheless improved compared to 2016. “Even though global unemployment has stabilised, decent work deficits remain widespread: the global economy is still not creating enough jobs. Additional efforts need to be put in place to improve the quality of work for jobholders and to ensure that the gains of growth are shared equitably,” ILO Director-General Guy Ryder said. The report added that vulnerable employment is on the rise and the pace of working poverty reduction is slowing. ILO highlights the fact that the significant progress achieved in the past in reducing vulnerable employment has largely stalled since 2012. This means that almost 1.4 billion workers are estimated to be in vulnerable employment in 2017, and that an additional 35 million are expected to join them by 2019. In developing countries, vulnerable employment affects three out of four workers. ILO showed that in Asia Pacific, the unemployment should remain at 4.2%. In Central and Western Asia, the regional unemployment rate is expected to remain at around 8.6% throughout 2018 and 2019.Meanwhile, in Northern, Western and Southern Europe, the unemployment rate is projected to have decreased from 9.2% in 2016 to 8.5% in 2017, the lowest rate since 2008. In Eastern Europe, the unemployment rate is projected to decline, reaching 5.3% in 2018 from 5.5% in 2017. […]

  • Australia – Jobless rate falls in December

    The unemployment rate in Australia fell by 0.2% in December to 5.5%, compared to same time in the previous year, according to seasonally adjusted figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics.The figures showed that employment increased by 34,700 to reach 12.4 million in December. Full-time employment increased 15,100 to 8.5 million and part-time employment increased 19,500 to 3.9 million.Unemployment increased 20,500 to 730,600. The number of unemployed persons looking for full-time work increased 9,900 to 501,800 and the number of unemployed persons only looking for part-time work increased 10,600 to 228,800.The Labour force participation rate increased by 0.2% to 65.7% in December, compared to the previous year. […]

  • Australia – Employees are more productive during summer months

    Australian workers seem to be more productive during summer months, per new research from Robert Half Australia.According to the research, 89% of Australian managers predict that employee productivity will either stay the same or rise during the summer months. Robert Half states that this is an indication that warmer weather may be a prime motivator within the workplace. Furthermore, 58% of Australian managers expect their staff to be more productive during the summer months, with 20% saying they expect staff to be “much more productive”.Geographically, 70% of managers in New South Wales believe their staff are more productive during summer months. This is followed by Western Australia (64%) and Queensland (52%).“This is a positive step up from previous Robert Half findings in 2015 – of those surveyed who were concerned about potential negative impacts on their business during summer, 21% specifically referred to a loss of productivity due to employees taking annual leave,” the research stated.Nicole Gorton, Director of Robert Half Australia commented, “A non-stressed and happy workforce that comes back to the office refreshed after a holiday tends to be more productive and engaged, making holidays beneficial to long-term business performance as well.”“Managers who are concerned about any potential loss of productivity over the summer months due employees taking annual leave also have the option to bring in temporary workers to maintain business operations, continue to meet deadlines and complete projects, without increasing permanent headcount,” Gorton said. […]

  • China – Employers remain cautious about hiring despite growing confidence in the economy

    The majority of employers in Mainland China are optimistic about business activity and economic growth in 2018, however, less than half expect to increase headcount, according to data from Hays.Research from Hays showed that, while 63% of businesses in Mainland China expect an increase in business activity and 49% expect the economy to strengthen in 2018, 45%, expect to increase headcount.“Our survey findings’ shows the vast majority of employers in Mainland China are optimistic about strong economic growth and business activity in 2018. We believe this positive sentiment will eventually lead to more businesses increasing their headcount to take advantage of the promising economic and business landscape,” Simon Lance, Managing Director for Hays in Greater China, said.Despite the hiring plans, 51% of employers in Mainland China plan salary increases of more than 6%. A further 35% plan salary increases of 3%-6% as businesses look to retain talent in 2018.“Recruitment and retention of talented employees remains a key factor in the success of any business, and employers in Mainland China recognise that salary increases are one way to keep their best people on board,” Lance said.Hays added that its survey also found that there is a disconnect in salary expectations between employers and employees in Mainland China. For instance, 85% of candidates surveyed expect a salary increase of more than 6% this year vs. the 51% of employers who plan to offer the same increase.Furthermore, employers were asked how confident they are that they will be able to ‘recruit candidates with the skills needed to meet their needs over the next 12 months’. In Mainland China 82% of businesses said they are ‘very confident or confident’.Meanwhile, businesses in Mainland China are concerned about skills shortages as 98% of employers said skills shortages have the potential to hamper effective operations and 34% said they don’t have the talent needed now to achieve business objectives. Moreover, 37% of businesses have up-skilled their workforce to address immediate skill shortages.Further data from Hays showed that 46% of employers intend to award bonuses to more than 50% of their workforce. Moreover, 57% of candidates are unhappy with their total compensation package that includes bonuses and benefits and 53% of employees believe their current skills will still be in demand by employers five years from now. […]

Latest Research

  • 2018 Temp Survey Initial Findings

    Key Findings: This chapter contains the initial findings of the 2018 Temporary Worker Survey, implemented in conjunction with the 2017-2018 Staffing Industry Analysts “Best Staffing Companies to Work For” competition. It includes the complete survey questions and summary statistics. The survey was conducted in late 2017 and reflects the opinions of 3,975 North American temporary worker respondents from 37 staffing firms; no single firm accounted for more than 13% of respondents. Data includes: satisfaction with staffing agencies and client companies, use of consumer and business human cloud staffing, impressions of staffing firm process automation, awareness of and satisfaction with staffing firm website features, preferred work status, and more. To access the complete report, please select the link below: Temporary Worker Survey 2018 Initial Findings 20180121 - You do not have permission to view this object. […]

  • Legal Calendar 2018: Americas

    Key Findings   Major changes to Canada’s Labour Code, as well as new employee rights to leave in Ontario and Alberta, are expected in 2018. The US Department of Homeland Security’s regulatory agenda for 2018 indicates the administration will pursue plans to terminate work authorization for spouses of H-1B holders, overhaul the H-1B annual allotment process, and revise H-1B eligibility and wage protections. Labor reform is anticipated in Argentina; the law on outsourcing is to be further clarified by the Supreme Court in Brazil. In addition, we highlight developments in legislation on healthcare, paid leave and background checks at federal and state level. To download a pdf copy of this report, click below: Legal Calendar_2018__Americas_20180115 - You do not have permission to view this object. […]

  • SI Report Webinar - January 2018

    In this webinar topics covered include: CWS council insight presented by guest speaker, Bryan Peña, SVP Contingent Workforce Strategies Insight into buyer survey results Gross margin report Industrial staffing growth assessment Blockchain and how it relates to staffing And of course the latest updates on the state of the economy, employment trends and developments in the US staffing industry.Download the presentation slides.Select the play button to begin viewing. […]

  • January US Jobs Report 2018

    Event- On a seasonally adjusted basis, total nonfarm employment rose by 148,000 in December, according to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in its monthly jobs report. Temporary help services employment increased by 0.20% in December, adding 7,000 jobs. The temporary agency penetration rate remained at 2.10%, and the national unemployment rate remained at 4.1%.Background and Analysis- On a year-over-year (y/y) basis (December 2017 over December 2016), total nonfarm employment was up 1.4%, and monthly job gains have averaged approximately 171,000 over the past 12 months. Temporary help employment was up 4.6% y/y, with monthly job gains averaging approximately 11,300 over the past 12 months.The economic sectors that most drove total nonfarm employment growth in December (on a seasonally adjusted basis) include construction (+30,000), healthcare and social assistance (+29,200) and leisure and hospitality (+29,000). Overall, there were 12 sectors that added jobs in December; natural resources/mining was unchanged, and education (-300) and retail trade (-20,300) declined.BLS Revisions- The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for October was revised from +244,000 to +211,000, and the change for November was revised from +228,000 to +252,000. With these revisions, total nonfarm employment gains during the two-month period were 9,000 less than previously reported.The change in temporary help services employment for October was revised from +17,900 to +14,300, and the change for November was revised from +18,300 to +16,900. With these revisions, temporary help employment growth was 5,000 lower than previously reported.Staffing Industry Analysts’ Perspective- The BLS employment report for December was generally tepid, capping an otherwise strong year. Temporary help employment grew every month in 2017, as did total nonfarm employment (continuing a streak of 87 consecutive months for the latter). The decline in the unemployment rate accelerated from 2016 to 2017, and the temporary agency penetration rate broke the 2.1% barrier last year as well.Only two of the fifteen major industry sectors declined in 2017, retail trade (as e-commerce takes share from “big box” retailers) and information, driven by a decline in jobs in print media as well as telecommunications (as telecommunications infrastructure becomes more reliable, fewer workers are needed to make repairs). While the largest three industries in terms of employment gains last year were professional services (excluding temporary help), health and social assistance and leisure and hospitality, employment growth in 2017 was also driven by a turnaround in mining and accelerated gains in manufacturing.As we turn our attention to 2018, this month’s employment numbers beg the question as to whether the weakness in the report is due to choppiness from month-to-month, or the beginning of a reversion to slower growth in the economy. The generally favorable signs from other economic indicators suggest weakness is likely driven more by the former.Members may download our jobs report tool by clicking the link below. Monthly Employment Situation January 2018 - You do not have permission to view this object. […]

  • Book of Lists - EMEA Edition 2017

    The 2017 Staffing Firm Market Share Landscape and Book of Lists - EMEA Edition consolidates 11 staffing firm market share landscape and opportunity list reports into one convenient Excel workbook. The file includes: Lists of the largest staffing firms in Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Globally Lists the largest temporary staffing firms in EMEA in each of the following skill segments: Clinical/Scientific, Direct Hire, Engineering, Healthcare, Information Technology, Healthcare List of the largest Job Boards globally To download the Excel file, please click on the link below:  Staffing Firm Market Share Landscape and Book of Lists - EMEA - You do not have permission to view this object. […]

  • Legal Calendar 2018: EMEA

    Key Findings   GDPR: all companies processing the personal data of data subjects residing in the Union, regardless of the company’s location, will have to comply from 25 May 2018. Increases in statutory rates and minimum wage for the UK and Netherlands and a national minimum wage for South Africa. Significant rulings are expected from South Africa’s Constitutional Court on the employment status of temporary workers; from the European Court of Justice on pregnant workers’ rights; and from the UK courts on cases regarding the correct classification of independent contractors in the Pimlico Plumbers and Uber cases. Proposals to abolish the Employment Relationships (Deregulation) Act (Wet deregulering beoordeling arbeidsrelaties, DBA) will make significant changes to the way ZZP independent contractors are classified. In addition, we highlight developments expected during 2018 in Austria, France, Ireland, Iceland, Italy and Saudi Arabia. To download a pdf copy of this report click below: Legal Calendar_2018_EMEA_20180115 - You do not have permission to view this object. […]

  • Planning For Brexit

    To help with your planning for Brexit we set out guidance a year and a half ago in our article Brexit: The Answer. We also looked at the European Parliament Research Services general and sectoral assessments last December.Now two studies have come out offering a variety of views about what the future may hold and giving you scenarios to plan for.Cambridge Economics working for The Greater London Authority sets out five scenarios in its paper “Preparing for Brexit”.  These model possible outcomes for the UK and London of the UK leaving the European Union Customs Union and Single Market. Scenario 1 reflects a status quo situation where the UK remains in the Single Market and Customs Union (the baseline), and then Scenarios 2 and 3 move from a softer version of Brexit (the UK is part of the EEA, but not the Customs Union in Scenario 2; and is part of the Customs Unions, but not the EEA in Scenario 3), to a harder Brexit in Scenarios 4 and 5 (UK is no longer part of the EEA or the Customs Union). Scenario 4 is the closest scenario to the government’s current position. Their worst-case scenario is that a no-deal Brexit could cause the UK to lose half a million jobs and nearly £50bn in investment by 2030.    Dr Graham Gudgin of the Centre for Business Research at the University of Cambridge argues that the so-called “gravity model” of trade patterns – where countries tend to trade more with countries that are geographically closer – used by the Treasury in their own report on “the long-term economic impact of EU Membership and the alternatives” was implausible. As a result, he concludes  that given  most of the rest of the Treasury’s analysis depends on this trade estimate, its calculated final impact of Brexit on the UK economy should be viewed as highly exaggerated.Whichever model you believe is right we believe you should stick to our initial advice that if you want to protect your business start planning. As we said before scenario planning is not about predicting the future. It is about helping you exploring the future. If you are aware of what could happen, you are better able to prepare for what will happen. […]

  • Europe Legal Update Q4 2017

    In this report, we round up the legal developments affecting the workforce solutions ecosystem in Europe in Q4 2017:European Union Pregnant workers are protected even though employer is unaware Jurisdiction for claims is employee’s habitual place of work  Proposals approved for a revised Posted Workers Directive ECJ confirms carry-forward of accrued but untaken holiday pay Failure to assess risk to breastfeeding mother is discrimination AustriaEqual treatment of white- and blue-collar workersBelgiumNew rules increase administration when posting workersGermanyMinimum wage applies to public holidays and night work premiumsItaly Bonus for youth employment in 2018 New whistleblowing protections IcelandFirst country to make gender pay gap illegal UK Draft bill to end “bogus” self-employment  Immigration Rules changes for 2018 Legal Disclaimer: This update is provided solely for the purposes of information, and should not be considered legal advice. It is always recommended to seek the advice of qualified legal counsel before taking action.To download a pdf copy of this update click below: Europe_LegalUpdate_Q4_20170108 - You do not have permission to view this object. European Union Pregnant workers are protected even though employer is unawareIn a preliminary opinion in the Spanish case of Porras Guisado v Bankia SA and others (C-103/16), the Advocate General (AG) of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has stated that the Pregnant Workers Directive 92/85/EEC (PWD) should be interpreted as protecting pregnant workers against dismissal in the event of a collective redundancy even though the employer has not been notified of the pregnancy.Ms Porras Guisado, who was pregnant, received notification from her employer, Bankia S.A., that she was among a group of workers who had been selected for redundancy following consultation and agreement with the workers’ representatives. Bankia was unaware that she was pregnant at the time of her dismissal. In subsequent legal proceedings, they argued that the PWD did not apply to Ms Porras Guisado because she had not told them that she was pregnant at the time of her dismissal. Further, that the dismissal was an exception to the PWD as it formed part of a collective redundancy unrelated to the particular worker concerned.The PWD places a requirement on Member States to ensure that they prohibit the dismissal of a worker during the period from the beginning of the pregnancy to the end of the maternity leave, save in exceptional circumstances. Member States can determine the exceptional circumstances in which a pregnant worker can be dismissed, provided the dismissal is not pregnancy related. The EU Directive on Collective Redundancies 98/59/EC regulates collective redundancy dismissals, which are defined as "dismissals effected by an employer for one or more reasons not related to the individual workers concerned".In the opinion of the AG, a collective redundancy per se is not an “exceptional circumstance”, and it is for the national court to decide if the collective redundancy qualifies as an exceptional case, justifying the dismissal of a pregnant worker. The AG interpreted the PWD as providing pregnant workers with protection against the consequences of dismissal as well as protection against the dismissal itself. This means that where an employer is unaware of the pregnancy before the dismissal, they can take steps to rectify this, but the AG considered that a dismissed worker has a duty to inform her employer of her pregnancy without unreasonable delay.However, the AG also took the view that the PWD does not require Member States to provide for pregnant workers to be retained in the event of a collective redundancy other than where it is an exceptional case, but that employers should be required to reassign such workers to a vacant post within the organization wherever possible.  The AG concludes that for a notice of dismissal to fulfil the requirements of the PWD, it must both be in writing and state substantiated grounds regarding the exceptional cases not connected with the pregnancy that permit the dismissal. In the context of a collective redundancy, a notice of dismissal which limits itself to providing the general reasons for the redundancies and selection criteria but does not explain why the dismissal of a pregnant worker is permissible as an “exceptional case” will not satisfy that test.The AG’s Opinion is not binding on the ECJ. The judgment of the ECJ will be given at a later date. Jurisdiction for claims is employee’s habitual place of workIn September 2017, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) ruled that a jurisdiction clause in an employment contract which sought to prevent the employees from bringing proceedings in the courts of the countries in which they habitually work was not enforceable against those employees.  The judgment follows a legal action taken by a group of six airline cabin crew employees who had employment contracts with Ryanair and Crewlink, a company which recruits cabin crew for the airline.  The relevant employment contracts were in English, subject to Irish law, and included a jurisdiction clause providing that the Irish courts had jurisdiction as regards any disputes.It was stipulated in the employment contracts that the work of the cabin crew employees was regarded as being carried out in Ireland, as their duties were performed on board aircraft registered in that Member State.  However, their contracts designated Charleroi Airport in Belgium as the employees' "home base".  The employees started and ended their working day at that airport, and they were contractually obliged to reside within an hour of that "home base".The six employees concerned brought actions in respect of their employment rights before the Belgian courts in 2011.  The Cour du Travail de Mons in Belgium was uncertain as to whether it had jurisdiction to hear the dispute considering the contents of the employment contracts, so referred the matter to the ECJ based on Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 of 22 December 2000 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters.The ECJ stated that an employee is entitled "to sue his employer before the courts which he regards as closest to his interests, by giving him the option of bringing proceedings before the courts of the Member State in which the employer is domiciled or the courts of the place in which the employee habitually carries out his work".  As the employees concerned habitually carried out their work from Charleroi Airport, which was their home base, the Belgian courts had jurisdiction to determine the employment disputes.This ruling does not prevent an employer and employee agreeing, in the contract of employment, which national law governs their employment relationship. As William Fry points out this ECJ case concerned 'jurisdiction' only, i.e. which courts would hear the matter; it did not concern 'governing law', which is the applicable law when interpreting and implementing a contract.  Regulation (EC) No 593/2008 ("Rome I") on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations gives parties in Member States the ability to choose a governing law and to stick to that governing law.  But it is important to note that Rome I does not allow parties to derogate from the "mandatory laws" of a country.  What this means in practice in the context of these Belgian workers is: their dispute can be heard in Belgian courts, but the courts must interpret and apply the Irish law contracts except to the extent that the mandatory employment laws of Belgium contradict the Irish employment contracts.   Proposals approved for a revised Posted Workers DirectiveIn October 2017, the European Parliament approved the negotiation of new rules for the protection of posted workers. The proposals, which were put forward by the European Commission in 2016, involve extending the existing rules on pay and employment conditions and applying these to temporary agency workers.A “posted worker” is an employee who is sent by his employer to carry out a service in another EU member state on a temporary basis. In 2015, there were 2.05 million posted workers in the EU.The current EU law, set out in Directive 96/71/EC, defines a set of mandatory rules regarding the terms and conditions of employment to be applied to posted workers to guarantee that these rights and working conditions are protected for workers throughout the EU and to avoid "social dumping", where foreign service providers undercut local service providers because their labour standards are lower. These rules establish that, even though workers posted to another Member State are still employed by the sending company and therefore subject to the law of that Member State, they are entitled by law to a set of core rights in force in the host Member State.However, under current EU rules, employees who are posted to another EU Member State can only demand that their company comply with the ‘minimal’ working and salary conditions set out in law. In addition, in the course of a posting, the employee can remain under his or her home country social security regime for 24 months. These rules have been criticised on the basis of unfair competition, as they do not adequately address the issue of social dumping.One of the new proposals is that the salary to be paid to the temporarily posted workers should be equal to the salary of the workers in the host country. In other words, there should be equal pay for equal work that is carried out at the same place. This principle would apply not only to a worker’s fixed salary but also to any benefits such as bonuses. Another proposal is to limit the duration of a posting to 12 months (extendable by another six months where there is good reason).Note, however, that social security contributions would still be paid in the worker’s home country, meaning that the labour cost of a temporarily posted worker will, in many countries, still be lower when compared with the labour cost of an indigenous worker.The proposal will also ensure that national rules on temporary agency work apply when agencies established abroad post workers to another country. If a temporary worker is posted to a company bound by a collective agreement not universally-applicable (for instance a company level collective agreement), the more favourable terms and conditions would have to be applied to the temporary agency workers posted by an agency established in another Member State.On 16 October 2017, the Employment Committee of the European Parliament adopted a compromise text. At the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council of 23 October 2017, EU Ministers of Employment and Social Affairs agreed on a general approach. The next step is for the European Parliament to start negotiations with the European Council to adopt a final proposal for a new Directive. Member States will then have a period of up to four years (the transposition period) to implement the new Directive. In the meantime, the existing rules apply.Although postings involve a small share of the total EU workforce (0.7%), this revision will have particular relevance for the construction sector, in which 42% of total postings are concentrated; the manufacturing industry (21.8%) and in other service sectors, such as personal services (education, health and social work, 13.5%) and business services (administrative, professional, and financial services, 10.3%). If adopted, the requirement to provide equal remuneration above the minimum wage will increase the cost of posting labour, including the posting of agency workers, where more favourable conditions are laid down in collective bargaining agreements to which the workers might not have been subject to before. ECJ confirms carry-forward of accrued but untaken holiday payIn our Q3 2017 Legal Update, we reported on the preliminary opinion of the Advocate General (AG) of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in the case of The Sash Window Workshop Ltd and another v King. This case involved a worker who, on the face of it was not entitled to paid holiday because he had always been paid as a self-employed contractor. But once his status as a worker was clarified he claimed holiday pay for periods of unpaid leave; and holiday pay for leave that he had accrued but not taken over the 13 years he had worked for the company.The ECJ has now delivered its judgement, and agreed with the opinion of the AG, that an employer must give a worker the opportunity to take paid leave. Otherwise, the leave carries over until the worker can take it, or until their employment is terminated when they are entitled to a payment in lieu of the untaken holiday.This ruling provides additional impetus to employers to correctly classify the individuals they employ or face claims for, potentially, years’ worth of holiday pay. The risk is greatest with those individuals directly engaged as self-employed contractors, who may claim for accrued holiday pay when their contract ends.At the very least employers should ensure that they have provided self-employed contractors with the opportunity to take four weeks’ leave and agreed in the contract that a sum for holiday pay is included within their fee. Then, even if there is a subsequent claim, it could be argued that no compensation is payable as they have already received compensation for holiday and been given the opportunity to take leave. The risk is reduced with agency workers or contractors supplied through an intermediary such as a personal service or umbrella limited company. Failure to assess risk to breastfeeding mother is discriminationThe European Court of Justice (ECJ) has held, in the recent case of Otero Ramos v Servicio Galego de Saude (C-531/15), that failure to conduct an appropriate risk assessment for a breastfeeding employee amounts to sex discrimination.The employee, in this case, was an accident and emergency nurse who had concerns about the impact of the complex shift rotation pattern, exposure to ionising radiation, healthcare-associated infections and stress while she was breastfeeding. She requested an adjustment to her working conditions and preventative measures to be implemented. Her employer refused her request on the basis of a list of risk-free jobs including that of an accident and emergency nurse, drawn up previously, in conjunction with a report issued by the department of preventive medicine certifying, without further explanation, that the employee was fit for work. The employee produced a letter from her manager stating that the work of a nurse in that unit posed physical, chemical, biological and psychosocial risks to a breastfeeding worker and to her child.The employee filed a claim for sex discrimination against her employer, alleging that the risk assessment carried out by her employer did not comply with the requirements of EU law which provides measures to improve health and safety for pregnant and breastfeeding workers. The ECJ found that the employer had failed to perform an individual assessment of the employee’s circumstances, as required under the legislation, and rather it had conducted an assessment of the employee’s role as an accident and emergency nurse.Accordingly, the ECJ held that failure to properly assess the risk posed by the work of a breastfeeding worker in accordance with the requirements of EU law must be regarded as less favourable treatment and constitutes direct sex discrimination.This decision underlines the importance of carrying out an individualised subjective assessment of the risks posed to a pregnant and breastfeeding woman in the workplace, and not simply relying on a general assessment of her role. Austria Equal treatment of white- and blue-collar workersOn 25 October 2017, the Austrian parliament voted for reform of the ‘Angestelltengesetz’ law which regulates the rights of workers with regard to paid holidays, severance indemnity and retirement. The reform act will remove the different treatment of white and blue-collar workers since the Angestelltengesetz (White-collar workers Act or Salaried Employee Act) was passed in 1921. Based on this act, white-collar workers enjoy additional privileges, particularly with regard to termination dates and periods, where these are not regulated by collective agreements. For example, if an employer wants to sack a white-collar worker the notice period, based on the Angestelltengesetz,  is one month. For blue-collar workers, the Civil Code has a termination period of two weeks. The two groups also have different sickness-pay periods. The amended Act will introduce several changes to other legislation (legislation on pay, the Civil Code and the Labour Code) which will enter into force in subsequent stages, starting 1 January 2018. Further details of the changes are provided by Taylor Wessing. Belgium New rules increase administration when posting workersBelgium has required employers to submit a document known as a “Limosa declaration” for most posted workers since 2007. Posting companies must have certain documents available for inspection in Belgium, including copies of employment contracts, records of employees’ working hours and proof of salary payment. The documents must be translated into Dutch, English, French or German if requested by the authorities, and must be kept for at least one year after the assignment ends. Posting companies must also designate a who can receive information from the authorities and make documents available to the authorities for inspection upon request. Under a royal decree which came into force on 1 October 2017, companies must now provide specific information about the representative as part of their Limosa declarations. The changes also require companies to provide information on the nature of the services provided and additional information in cases involving temporary agencies or construction work.Effective 1 October, companies submitting Limosa declarations must include, among other information, (1) the name and date of birth of the person who will act as the representative; (2) the capacity (e.g., employer or representative/proxy holder of employer, job title) of the representative; and (3) the person’s physical address, email address and telephone number. The representative can be the employer or a third person and does not need to be domiciled in Belgium.Penalties for non-compliance include fines of between EUR 400 (USD 481) and EUR 4,000 (USD 4,818) in cases involving criminal prosecution and between EUR 200 (USD 240) and EUR 2,000 (USD 2,409) in cases where administrative penalties are administered.Foreign companies, including non-EU/EEA companies, sending employees to work in Belgium temporarily must ensure they comply with the new rules and submit the relevant information or face the penalty of a fine. Germany Minimum wage applies to public holidays and night work premiumsOn 1 January 2015, the Minimum Wage Act (Mindestlohngesetz, MiLoG) introduced a minimum wage to Germany of EUR 8.50. The plaintiff in a recent case (BAG, 20.09.17 – 10 AZR 171/16) had worked since 1999 for the defendant company as an assembly worker. The relevant collective agreement provided for a night work supplement of 25% of the actual hourly earnings and holiday pay of 1.5 times average earnings. For the month of January 2015, the defendant paid, in addition to the contractual hourly earnings of EUR 7.00 (USD 8.43) and EUR 7.15 (USD 8.61), a Minimum Wage Act Allowance for the hours worked; but compensation for a public holiday, as well as a night work supplement, was calculated not on the basis of the statutory minimum wage, but on the lower contractual hourly rate.Although the Minimum Wage Act only grants entitlement to the minimum wage for hours actually worked, the Federal Labour Court ruled that the calculation of premiums for night work and public holidays should be on the basis of the minimum wage. According to § 2 Abs. 1 Entgeltfortzahlungsgesetz,EFZG which regulates the payment of remuneration on public holidays, an employer must pay an employee the salary which he or she would have received if they had been working on that day. As the collective bargaining agreement referred to the “actual hourly earnings” for a night work premium and for remuneration on holidays, they must be calculated at least on the basis of the statutory minimum wage. There is still some uncertainty around the application of the minimum wage and so this decision of the Federal Labour Court provides useful clarification.  Italy Bonus for youth employment in 2018One of the new features introduced by the draft Budget Law 2018 was a new “bonus” (Bonus Occupazione) intended to boost youth employment in Italy.From 1 January 2018, the youth bonus allows companies that hire young people on a permanent basis to benefit from an important tax advantage, paying only 50% of the mandatory INPS contributions due for each employee. During 2018, the person employed on an indefinite basis must be 35 years of age or under for the company to qualify for the bonus; from 2019 the threshold will reduce to 29 years of age.The duration of the bonus will be for three years, for a maximum contribution reduction of EUR 3,000 (USD 3,614) per year. The discount on social security contributions is also recognised in cases of the conversion, from 1st January 2018 of a contract of apprenticeship into a permanent contract, regardless of the age of the worker on the date of conversion. The 2018 bonus will also apply in cases of the conversion of a fixed-term contract into a permanent contract, in compliance with the rules.Employers in the South will benefit from a 100% contribution reduction in certain circumstances.In addition, to benefit from the bonus, employers must be in possession of the Durc (Contribution Regularity Document), comply with labour laws and collective agreements, and will not be able to hire young people who are already beneficiaries of the employment bonus with other companies, even if they are without a permanent contract of more than six months. The government will also introduce rules to prevent employers from dismissing employees in order to make room for new hires, just so they benefit from the bonus.The rules are yet to be finalised by the government, but further information on the draft law is provided byInformazione Fiscale. New whistleblowing protectionsEffective 29 December 2017, employees in the private and public sectors who report unlawful practices are protected under Law 179/2017.Under the new whistleblowing law, an employer is prohibited from dismissing an employee or making a discriminatory or retaliatory change to their employment conditions as a result of them making a protected disclosure. If an employer does take action against a whistleblower employee (e.g. disciplinary action, demotion, dismissal, transfer), then the employer has the obligation to prove that their action was unrelated to the information disclosure by the employee. If the employer fails to provide such evidence, the employee is entitled to reinstatement (including employees employed under the ‘Jobs Act’ who would ordinarily not be entitled to reinstatement). The Law provides a separate process for public and private sector employees, setting out the person to whom the employee must report the misconduct and what protection is in place in the event of retaliation or discrimination against the whistleblower.Both public and private companies are obliged to set up a whistleblowing scheme for the handling of notifications. Private sector employers that adopted internal organisational, management and control procedures (a so-called “organisational model”) to comply with Legislative Decree no. 231 of 2001 are required to update those procedures to ensure that there are one or more channels for employees and all personnel to report unlawful practices.  The 2001 Decree provided a regulatory framework for corporate accountability, according to which companies could be held liable, fined, subjected to restraining orders to prohibit the exercise of the company’s activity and confiscation orders, in relation to certain offences committed, or attempted, by officers, managers or their subordinates as well as by third parties (suppliers, partners, consultants, etc.). Companies could minimise the risk of liability by implementing an “organisational model” to prevent the commission of offences in the interests of, or for the benefit of, the company.A protected disclosure must be based on specific and objective information.  Employees will also be protected if they wish to report breaches of the company’s organisational model that they discovered through their position at the company.  The channels for disclosure, of which at least one must be electronic, must safeguard the identity of the whistleblowing employee, especially in small organisations. Anonymous disclosures are not permitted.  Any discrimination relating to the making of a protected disclosure may be reported to the Labour Office by the relevant employee and/or by a trade union. The company is entitled to safeguard their rights in the event of a false disclosure by an employee and is required to specify disciplinary sanctions for employees breaching the whistleblowing protection rules, or for gross negligence and wilful misconduct for employees who deliberately make false disclosures. All private and public sector employers should update their organisational procedures to comply with the requirements of the new whistleblowing law. Iceland First country to make gender pay gap illegalIceland has become the first country in the world to make it illegal to pay women less than men. Amendments to the Gender Equality Act 10/2008 that were passed by Parliament with a vast majority on 1 June 2017 came into effect on 1 January 2018. The legislation requires firms employing at least 25 people on an annual basis to obtain certification of their equal pay system and the implementation thereof by 2021. The certification process is based on the Equal Pay Standard, an administrative tool designed to establish and maintain gender equality in wages within a workplace.  It does this by assessing a company's pay policies, classification of jobs according to equal value and wage analysis on the basis of the classification, as well as formalising policies and processes related to pay decisions.The purpose of this obligatory certification is to enforce the current legislation, Gender Equality Act 1976, which prohibits discriminatory practices based on gender and requires that women and men working for the same employer shall be paid equal wages and enjoy equal terms of employment for the same jobs, or jobs of equal value. Workplaces employing 250 or more workers are required to obtain equal pay certification by the end of 2018. It was assumed that workplaces of this size would have sufficient infrastructure in place to enable them to introduce equal pay management systems in line with the Equal Pay Standard, and consequently they would be in a position to obtain equal pay certification earlier than others. Workplaces employing 150-249 workers are required to obtain certification by the end of 2019, while those employing 90-149 workers are granted a grace period until the end of 2020. Workplaces employing 25-89 workers are required to obtain certification by the end of 2021.In cases where a business either has not acquired equal pay certification or has failed to renew it by the deadline, the social partners will be able to report it to the Centre for Gender Equality. The Centre can impose on the workplace a formal demand to rectify the situation by a certain deadline. Rectification measures can involve, for example, the provision of information and release of materials or the drawing up of a scheduled plan of action on how the workplace intends to meet the requirements of the Equal Pay Standard. If the workplace fails to act on instructions of this type, the Centre for Gender Equality is authorised to impose per diem fines. UK Draft bill to end “bogus” self-employmentFollowing the Taylor Review’s “Good Work” report published in the summer of 2017 and ahead of any formal response from the government, two parliamentary committees - the Work and Pensions Committee and the BEIS Committee – have published a joint report entitled “A Framework for Modern Employment” and a draft bill which sets out how they believe the employment framework should be amended to reflect and support the modern world of work.The draft bill agrees with Taylor’s recommendation that the definition of “worker” should be amended to include a list of key factors which the courts may refer to when deciding on employment status. These include: whether the individual is obliged to perform work personally; whether there is the potential for the ‘employer’ to exercise substantial control over how the work will be carried out (e.g. is there scope to discipline the individual? Who directs where and how the work will be carried out and with what equipment? Who determines working hours and rate of pay?); whether the individual is integrated into the business of the ‘employer’; who provides the necessary equipment; the degree of financial risk undertaken by the individual; and whether the individual is prohibited from working for others during the contract. The draft Bill also introduces a new definition of ‘independent contractor’ (i.e. self-employed) which is neither an employee nor a worker. Relevant factors that a court may take into account when determining whether an individual is an independent contractor include: whether the individual assumes responsibility for the success or failure of their business; whether the individual can hire others at their own expense; whether the individual has the ability to determine the manner in which the services are carried out; whether the individual actively markets their services; whether the individual can negotiate and set the price for their services; and whether the individual is responsible for their own indemnity cover or public liability insurance. The draft bill follows Taylor’s recommendation that if, in a tribunal claim, there is a question as to whether the claimant is a worker, it should be presumed that they are a worker, unless the contrary is established. Employers should be required to provide a written statement of status to an individual within seven days of starting work, which should specify whether the individual is an employee or a worker and detail their rights and entitlements.Among the other recommendations endorsed by the Report is that the government repeals the provision of the Agency Workers Regulations giving agencies the right to avoid the issue of equal pay for agency workers where they employ the workers on a contract providing pay between assignments, otherwise known as the “Swedish Derogation”.The government had been expected to respond formally to the Taylor Review by the end of 2017. A spokesperson for the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy did not confirm that implementation of the Taylor review had been delayed, but said: ‘It is quite right the government gives due attention to the recommendations. The government has already committed to promoting the delivery of fair and decent work for all in its modern Industrial Strategy and we will be publishing our response to the review shortly.' Immigration Rules changes for 2018With effect from 11 January 2018, there are a number of changes to the UK’s Immigration Rules to streamline the process and prepare for digitisation as well as removing obstacles for visitors and highly skilled migrants.UK Visas and Immigration has been working on an initiative to streamline and digitise the immigration process for the past few years. In line with this, it has been proposed that the format in which Entry Clearance (i.e. an entry visa) is issued be changed to allow for it to be issued electronically. On entry to the UK, the Entry Clearance holder will simply present their passport to the Immigration Officer, who will check their immigration status electronically. The individual will then collect their Biometric Residence Permit (BRP) as ongoing evidence of their immigration status, as per current requirements. Electronic Entry Clearance will be trialled with specified groups prior to general rollout. There is no indication of dates or timing at present.It will be possible for graduates from UK universities who hold a Tier 4 (General) visa (i.e. a student visa) to apply for a Tier 2 (General) visa once they have completed their course, rather than having to wait for their final results. Where an individual has completed five years' residence in the UK on a qualifying work visa they (and any accompanying family members) are eligible to apply for Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR), provided the main applicant can show that they have been continually resident in the UK, i.e. have had no more than 180 days' absence from the UK in any 12-month period. The restriction on the number of days that an applicant for ILR can be absent from the UK is being extended from the main applicant to also include the main applicant's partner (to include husband or wife, civil partner or unmarried partner in possession of a Tier 1 (Partner) or Tier 2 (Partner) visa). This change will not be retrospective – the 180-day limit will only apply to partners issued with periods of leave (i.e. a new visa or extension) from 11 January 2018.The quota for Tier 1 (Exceptional Talent) individuals with exceptional talent in science, humanities, engineering, the arts and digital technology, who are typically looking to gain international experience and/or establish a business in the UK will be doubled from 1,000 places a year to 2,000 a year. Each of these five fields has a Designated Competent Body (DCB), which assesses the credentials of the individual and provides endorsement to successful applicants. The first 1,000 places will be allocated between the five disciplines with the remaining 1,000 places being pooled for any DCB to dip into should they exhaust their initial quota. An accelerated route to ILR will be offered to "world leaders in their fields", reducing the qualifying period from five years to three years.Employers who may be affected by these changes should update any graduate recruitment processes to reflect that graduates will be able to apply to switch their status from Tier 4 to Tier 2 once they have completed their studies rather than the current requirement to have completed and passed.It is also worth noting that Entry Clearance will be issued electronically in future and, notwithstanding this, employees must present documents to confirm their right to work in the UK, i.e. the employee will need to be in possession of their Biometric Residence Permit in order to be able to commence employment.&nbs […]

  • Legal Calendar 2018: Asia Pacific

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  • MSP Market Developments Summary

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  • VMS Market Developments Summary

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